Sour Stomach - Causes, Remedies and Cure

What is  Sour Stomach ?

Sour stomach is a term often used for various signs and symptoms of common illnesses or diagnosis. Sour stomach is expressed differently in every individual and has many underlying causes.  In this article, you will find the medical terms related to having a sour stomach as well as remedies or cures. In almost all cases of sour stomach prevention is the key to success.

A  sour stomach can arise in people of all ages, races and even those who are pregnant. The information provided here should help you understand your symptoms and what you can do about it. Here are some interesting facts before continuing:

  • Up to 30% of Western culture population experiences symptoms such as heartburn, reflux or chest pain which can be considered sour stomach.
  • Managing these symptoms has been considered as one of the most expensive treatments in the US. (1)

Common signs and symptoms of a sour stomach can include and are not limited to:
  1. Dysphagia or difficulty swallowing
  2. Regurgitation is when food comes back into the mouth after being partially digested.
  3. Heartburn is the feeling of burning in the chest. (10)
  4. Hoarseness, sore throat, coughing, and wheezing can all be due to regurgitation.
  5. Abdominal cramping
  6. Nausea or vomiting
  7. Burning in the stomach
  8. Diarrhea
  9. Constipation

Below are a few charts showing findings from a study done to look at gastroesophageal reflux. This will help you to understand the wide variety of symptoms involved in a sour stomach.

Results of Acid Reflux in Gastroesophageal Reflux Disease Patients

Results of Erosive Reflux Disease and Non-erosive Reflux Disease

Results of Symptomatic Reflux Episodes and  Asymptomatic Reflux Episode 

 Results of Individual Symptom (2)

Causes or Diagnosis linked to Sour Stomach.

Diagnosis - Related causes:

i. Dyspepsia
  • Uninvestigated - means there have been no studies done to prove there are no lesions or ulcers.
  • Non-ulcer - When studies have been done to show there are no lesions or ulcers.  (5)
ii. Gastric Hormone fluctuations
  • Cholecystokinin, glucose-dependent insulinotropic peptide.
iii. H. pylori infection
iv. Zollinger-Ellison syndrome (ZES)- causes peptic ulceration and diarrhea.
v.  Hypergastrinaemia- Increase of gastric hormones being secreted.
vi. Transient lower esophageal sphincter relaxations (TLESRs)- gastric distension causes mechanoreceptors. (7)
vii. Peptic Ulcer (5)
viii.  Gastroesophageal reflux (GER) - burning sensation in the chest.
ix.   Esophageal hypersensitivity.(1)
x.   Gastritis- inflammation of gastric mucosa.
  • Non-atrophic - no loss off of appropriate glands
  • Atrophic - loss of appropriate glands. (8) 

Environmental causes:

  1. Smoking
  2. High salt intake
  3. Taking Aspirin or non-steroidal anti-inflammatory medications. (8)

Studies have shown that sexual intercourse has been proven to not increase or cause symptoms of the sour stomach. (3)

This image shows the various parts involved in issues related to sour stomach. When reading this article you can refer to this picture to better understand what area is being discussed.

Testing that may be done to find the cause of sour stomach.

a.    Non-invasive testing of the following:

  • Serum gastrin
  • H. pylori
  • Fecal antigen, serum IgG antibodies, urease activity)
  • Pepsinogen
  • Assessment of gastric emptying.

b.   Simi invasive testing

  • Trans-nasal esophageal pH testing.
  • Esophageal multichannel intraluminal impedance (MII)
  • Mild hydrochloric acid infused into the esophagus to check for a reaction.
  • Gastric emptying test (4)

c.    Invasive testing

  • Endoscopy and biopsy of the upper GI tract

Remedies or Treatments to help alleviate sour stomach.

a.    Medications.

  • Protein pump inhibitors (PPI)
  • Bellow is an example standard procedure regarding PPI prescription and treatment. (1)

b.    Lifestyle changes

Which are discussed further bellow and are the best possible management and prevention available.
  • Weight loss
  • Cleaner healthier diet

c.    Surgical

  • Endoscopy and removal of ulcer damaged tissue or lesions. In the case of continued dysphagia and new findings of GI blood loss or weight loss, this may need to be repeated. (6)
  • Anti-reflux surgery - Corrects sphincter defects.
  • Fundoplication - the creation of a peri-esophageal ring at the gastroesophageal junction.
  • Gastric bypass

d.    More specifics regarding treatments

  • EndoStim- electrical stimulators which are implanted and include an implantable pulse generate (IPG), an external programmer, and a bipolar stimulation lead.
  • Stretta- balloon-catheter system
  • Fundoplication via endoscopy
  • Medigus - endoscopic stapling to do fundoplication. (4)


Prevention and or Diagnosis

a.  Lifestyle changes are the most effective prevention available.

i.    Six small meals during the day

ii.    If overweight, lose weight until you are in your normal parameters. (5)

iii.    Dietary changes such as:

  • Do not lie down for three hours after a meal 
  • Regular exercises
  • Do not eat three hours before going to sleep for the night. 
  • Squat rather than bend when needed. (10)
  • Avoiding foods that cause an increase in acid production or that have high levels of acid.
  1. Chocolate
  2. Coffee
  3. Citric juices
  4. Tomato-based drinks or foods
  5. Mint
  6. Onion
  7. Greasy foods 
b.  A population who is educated about the digestive flow after food intake will be able to understand how to care for their body. Ask your doctor for more information regarding having a healthy stomach.

c.  Screening for H. pylori infection (5)

d.  The World Health Organization has a list of key recommendations regarding healthy eating; bellow you will find a summary of this list.

  1. Foods, as well as drinks, should be considered part of the healthy diet.
  2. Foods from all subgroups of vegetables should be ingested daily.
  3. Whole fruits should be considered
  4. Whole grains should cover half of the grains consumed
  5. Protein foods should include a variety of items not just red meat.
  6. Limitations should be placed on the intake of sugars, sodium, and trans fats.
  7. Alcohol should be consumed in moderation. (11)

This healthy eating plate was adjusted by the Harvard Medical School. It is an easy way to understand healthy dietary standards. Placing a healthy eating plate image in your kitchen or dining area is a good way to remind yourself of healthy eating standards.

source :

In conclusion

Sour stomach can encompass many different symptoms and diagnosis. Each person will describe their symptoms differently. All should be reviewed by medical personnel in the case of reoccurrence even if they are able to function during episodes.

Proper healthy lifestyle is the best way to prevent occurrence or reoccurrence of a sour stomach. IF medications are prescribed always follow the direct indication of your physician.

 References : 

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Bionic - Artificial Pancreas

Artificial Pancreas    

a)    The artificial pancreas has raised hopes of some to bring Type I Diabetes patients to a higher quality of life.   This will include and may not be limited to:
  • A subcutaneous glucose sensor
  • A continuous subcutaneous insulin pump
  • An algorithm system which will make the mathematical model. 
b)    Current treatment available to patients with Type I diabetes are:
  1. Need to check their blood glucose many times a day
  2. Administration of subcutaneous injections between two and five times a day
  3. Use of an insulin pump. At times this pump may cause image and social issues for the patient. The pump is not always easy to conceal and still has to be manipulated constantly by the patient.
  4. Use of constant glucose monitoring devices but the same as the pump this still requires a lot of self-effort on the part of the patient.
  5. These devices are part of what is considered an open loop treatment. (2, 3)This meaning that the patient has to manually close the loop in order for the treatment to be effective.

c)    The image below shows the parts of an artificial pancreas device system. As you can see in the image and social issues as with the pump are present. But the difference with this system is the nearness to a closed loop system where the patient involvement is decreased. Below the image you will see the definitions of each section of the system

Picture :  "Bionic" Artificial Pancreas Device system
Image source :

  • Continuous Glucose Monitor (CGM) - This monitor is constantly checking the blood glucose level and sending it to a display the patient can see.
  • Blood Glucose Device (BGD) - This is the device that all diabetic patients are accustomed to. The hope is that with the artificial pancreas system this will no longer be needed.
  • Control algorithm – This is a software system that calculates the amount of insulin needed.
  • Infusion pump - After the control algorithm decides how much insulin is needed the pump administers the subcutaneous dose.
  • The patient - The hope is that the patient will have very little involvement in the decision making and dosage of each injection. The idea is to give the patient more freedom in their daily routines. (8)

What is the pancreas and what does it have to do with diabetes?

a)    A hormone secreting organ

  1. Insulin – helps the body receive glucose
  2. Glucagon – causes release of stored glucose
  3. Digestive enzymes
b)    Type I diabetes is due to the pancreas not producing the amount of insulin necessary for proper blood glucose regulation. Type II diabetes happens when the body is not a receptive to the insulin created in the body. (3,8)

c)    Untreated diabetes can lead to many other chronic and serious illnesses which include and are not limited to:
  1. Retinopathy
  2. Nephropathy
  3. Neuropathy
  4. Cardiovascular disease


Uses of Artificial Pancreas –

  • The whole idea of the artificial pancreas is to give those with Type I diabetics and some Type II diabetics with more freedom during their treatment.
  • A usual goal for any patient is to maintain glucose with the range of 80-140 and keep it as constant as possible.
  • Prevention of hypoglycemic episodes
  • Patient safety and health
  • Appropriate and proper insulin dosages (8)
  • A decrease in exercise-induced and night time hypoglycemia. These are times when the patient is less likely to notice symptoms of hypoglycemia. (1)

Documented Clinical Trials and current research

a)    Development and projects

  1. Patient safety is a very important issue when dealing with new devices which will remove the patient control. One study used the analogy of aircraft safety. They discussed how the takeoff and landing are the most dangerous times during operation. They state it is the same with this type of closed-looped system.
  2. Near misses are an important discussion point in health care recently. Near misses are documented when an error is noted before it reaches or harms the patient. New studies want to assure that near misses with any artificial pancreas system will be reported accurately before the patient enters into hypoglycemia. (4)
  3. A study was done to investigate patients acceptance of the artificial pancreas. Most of the patients reported an acceptance of the artificial pancreas mentioning that they did not trust it 100% but felt that with longer use they would come to trust its accuracy. They also felt that it would help to give them an overall better glucose control. (2)

b)    JDRF

Although Type I diabetes is considered an incurable disease JDRF has taken upon themselves to seek the cure. Through this goal, they also investigate treatments in order to give a better quality of life to those who have been diagnosed with Type I diabetes. Part of their work includes educating about what Type I diabetes is and why it needs to be cured.

They go as far as to boast that they want the world without Type I diabetes. They do donation based work and state that every dollar donated goes into research. Their initials stand for Juvenile Diabetes Research Foundation because they began by investigating juvenile diabetes. But now they include all Type I diabetes in their active research.(11)

Artificial Pancreas Brands

Medtronic is a company which normally works with pacemakers. They are the first company in the US to receive an approval to produce the automatic pancreas. Due to their success with pacemakers, the expectations are high. (12)

Development and Projects continue....

  1. Safety and control continue to be an issue (3)
  2. The goal is a closed-loop system which can shut off automatically. (4)
  3. Challenges may include correct usage of devices, reimbursement, and acceptance. (5)

The image below shows the scenario results of what the closed-Closed loop delivery system should look like.

source :

FDA Approval

the FDA is in high approval of the continuation of studies and creation of the artificial pancreas. They hope to place research, clear guidelines, standards and sponsoring of the artificial pancreas as priorities. They have released a guide in order to assist those who are in the process of creating this type of treatment.

Through this guide and other methods, they are encouraging clear and efficient communication. (6) The FDA expresses their concern for safety and the health of US citizens when they express that other countries have initiated the use of similar types of systems but that they have high expectation of the outcome of studies done. (8)

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Chills without Fever - Causes and Treatment

Definition of Chills

Chills or rigor refers to the involuntary, continuous contractions of skeletal muscles with paroxysms of excessive shivering and teeth chattering. When the body attempts to produce heat to increase its temperature from within, the muscles contract and relax rapidly. In this way, the body is able to compensate and maintain the homeostasis with regards to temperature.

Chills relates to a feeling of being cold without a supposed cause. It normally occurs as a response to exposure to cold. Goose bumps show on the skin when it is cold and during times of stress. However goose bumps are not the same with chills. The mechanism of goose bumps is when the arrector pili muscle on the dermis contract, causing the hair to lie perpendicular to the skin [1, 2, 3].


What Causes Chills?

Being exposed to cold weather is a common and logical cause for chills without fever. Because of the low temperature, the body compensates by producing heat inside the body through continuous muscle contraction and relaxation [4].


What causes Causes of Chills without Fever

Having chills without fever may coincide with certain medical conditions such as the following [5, 6, 7]:


Influenza (Flu)

This commonly happens among children whose immune system is not yet sufficiently exposed to microorganisms so their body is not yet immune to several types of influenza virus. At first, the person may have chills without the fever yet. 1-2 days later, the fever starts to occur, i.e. when the virus becomes active.


Acute Bronchitis

Acute bronchitis refers to inflammation of the bronchi most commonly due to bacterial or viral infection. The bronchi swell because of the infection, causing chest pain, breathing problems, cough, and chills with or without fever. Chills without fever can also be seen in other respiratory tract infections.



This happens when you are not getting enough nutrients that should be able to cater the needs of the body. There is a wide group of causes for malnutrition. Medical conditions, poor diet, and problems with absorption and digestion are the three main ones. Weight loss, dizziness, fatigue, and chills without fever are the main symptoms that seem to be present in the generality of the cases.

Having deficiencies in vitamin B, specifically vitamin B12, is bound to suffer from chills. The series of events that happens upon malnutrition depends entirely on the cause. Treatment includes stabilization of the underlying medical state which causes the malnutrition or replacing the missing nutrients.


Iron Deficiency Anemia

This is a condition characterized by low hemoglobin levels in the blood. The person feels cold even when if the weather is hot. Chills and fatigue also occur with the cold sensations. The hemoglobin in our red blood cells transports oxygen throughout our body.

The blood in itself provides warmth so with iron deficiency anemia, there is less transport of blood to the different parts of the body, especially on the distal parts like hands and feet, hence feeling cold especially on those areas.


Food Poisoning

Sudden chills without fever can occur due to food poisoning. Though some patients get fever and chills due to food illnesses, others do not experience an increase temperature of the body. They may also experience diarrhea, vomiting, and abdominal cramps aside from uncontrollable shivering or shaking.


Urinary Tract Infection

Persons suffering from urinary tract infection experience dysuria (painful urination) and a malodorous urine. Chills may occur periodically without fever in instances where the UTI is not that severe. If the infection ascends to the kidneys (pyelonephritis), a person may experience chills eventually with a fever.



Hypoglycemia or low blood sugar level can also cause infrequent chills with diaphoresis (excessive sweating), headache, dizziness, and tachycardia (increased heart rate). A person who is diabetic and having insulin administrations are more likely to have hypoglycemia.

A rapid drop in blood sugar is also caused by an accidental take of excessive dose of insulin. Carefully following the schedule of medications but not eating regularly develops higher chances of hypoglycemia in patients with diabetes. Being an alcoholic, low carbohydrate diet and extreme exercises are other causes of hypoglycemia.


Drugs or Medications

If the prescription is incorrect or an individual is using them in an abusive manner, chills may occur as a side effect of some prescribed drugs. When you are besieged with uncontrollable muscle spasms, there will be chills in periodical sessions. These chills will be accompanied by vomiting, nausea, allergic reaction, insomnia, heart problems, drowsiness, and drug dependence.



Thyroid is a small gland found in a person’s neck. It releases thyroid hormones to regulate your metabolism. When there is lacking production of the thyroid hormone, hypothyroidism occurs. One manifestation is chilling without fever.

It will result to chills because with this condition, you are more sensitive to cold. Some symptoms include depression, fatigue, constipation, joint pain, pale skin, heavy, weight gain, and brittle fingernails and hair. More symptoms may appear as the condition develops. Subsequent manifestations include decrease in sensation, slow speech, puffiness in the hands, feet and face, thickening of the skin, and thinning of the eyebrows.


Psychiatric Disorders

The sensation of coldness is not only experienced by a person with poor physical health. Panic disorders, anxiety problems, and other psychiatric diseases can have cold sensations regardless of the external environment. Chills without fever is a common response to anxiety.



Medical Treatment

 Chills without fever is not a disease per se. It is a  [9].

  • Antibiotics/antibacterial for bacterial infections: Intravenous administration is recommended in more serious cases. 
  • Antiviral drugs for viral infections. However, antiviral drugs are not really necessary because influenza goes away on its own even without treatment. The patient is rather recommended to drink plenty of warm fluids and have a bed rest. 
  • Improve your diet by carefully planning what and what not to eat. Take vitamin supplements as necessary.
  • Seeking emergency call is necessary in cases of food poisoning.
  • Intravenous administration of fluids prevents dehydration.
  • Levothyroxine is the treatment of choice for hypothyroidism.
  • Iron supplements can correct the symptoms of iron deficiency anemia.
  • Physiological counseling, relaxation, and breathing techniques are recommended for anxiety or stress-related disorders.

Home Remedies

If your chills is not that severe, it may be controlled by having these home remedies [10]

  • Getting enough rest can comfort the chills. 8-9 hours is recommended to sleep at night. 
  • Do not skip your meal. Eat regularly and make sure not to go hours without getting any form of nutrition for the body. Keep some snacks with you in case of hunger. 
  • Exercises like brisk walking and quick swimming help in controlling the chills. 
  • Getting a vitamin B supplement can be a big help in the body. It can reduce your chills and boost your energy.
  • Drinking warm water every now and then can help in soothing your body and reducing chills. This helps is to keep the body hydrated very well, and maintaining also the heat in your body.
  • Relax through a soothing warm bath.

  1. Chills without Fever are Caused by Different Conditions. Available from:
  3. Rapid Assessment: A Flowchart Guide to Evaluating Signs and Symptoms by Lippincott Williams and Wilkins
  4. Chills. Available from: 
  6. Chills without fever. Available from:
  8. Chills without fever. Available from: 
  10. Chills without fever. Available from:
  12. Causes and Treatment for Uncontrollable Shivering. Available from:
  14. Healthtap available from:
  16. Chills without fever. Available from:
  18. How to treat chills without fever. Available from: 

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How Long does Suboxone Stay in your System?

What is Suboxone?

Suboxone® is a prescription medicine that contains the active components buprenorphine and naloxone. These two combined medications in each dose of Suboxone are classified into two: Buprenorphine as a partial opioid agonist and Naloxone as an opioid antagonist.

It is indicated for treatment of opioid dependence in adults and should be used as part of a complete treatment plan including counseling and psychosocial support [1,2].

Picture 1: Suboxone Film (sublingual film)
Image Source: Restorative Solutions. Available from:

Picture 2: Suboxone Tablets
Image Source: Restorative Solutions. Available from:

What is Buprenorphine?

Buprenorphine (pronunciation: ‘bu-pre-‘nor-feen) is an opioid medication used to treat opioid addiction. It is a semi-synthetic opioid from an alkaloid of the poppy Papaver somniferum which is called thebaine.

Buprenorphine is a partial agonist, meaning it produces less side effects like respiratory depression that can only be seen with full agonist opioid.

Formulations of buprenorphine include Suboxone, Buprenex, Subutex, Cizdol, Bunavail, Temgesic, Zubsolv, Butrans, and Norspan available either as buprenorphine hydrochloride alone or a combination of buprenorphine and naloxone [3, 4].

What is Naloxone?

Naloxone (pronunciation: nə-läk-sōn) is a synthetic drug similar to morphine, which blocks the opiate receptors in the nervous system. It works by competitively antagonizing receptors for opioids.

To explain it simply, naloxone binds with the opioid receptors in the brain without stimulating them. It is a drug used to reverse the effects of opioids, especially in overdose. Naloxone is also useful in reducing respiratory or mental depression caused by opioids [5].

How Buprenorphine Works

  • Opioid receptor is empty. A person becomes less sensitive and requires more opioids to produce the same effect if they become tolerant to opioids. The patient feels discomfort whenever there is an insufficient amount of opioid receptors being activated. That is when withdrawal happens. 
  • Opioid receptors filled with full-agonist. Euphoria and the stop of withdrawal for a period of time (4-24 hours) are caused by the strong opioids of heroin and painkillers. To the point of an uncontrollable addiction, the brain starts to crave opioids and the cycle repeats accelerates.
  • Opioid replaced and blocked by Buprenorphine. Buprenorphine battles with the full agonist opioid for the receptor. It has a stronger affinity to receptors that eliminates existing opioids and blocks others from binding. As a partial agonist, buprenorphine has a restricted opioid effect, enough to stop withdrawal but not enough in causing intensive euphoria. 
  • Over time (24-72 hours) buprenorphine dissipates, but still creates restricted opioid effect that is enough to stop withdrawal and continues to block other opioids from binding to the opioid receptors.

Side Effects

The primary side effects of buprenorphine are similar to other opioid agonists, which include the following [6]:

  • Headache or other pain;
  • Tongue pain, inflammation inside your mouth;
  • Increased sweating (diaphoresis); or
  • Swelling of the extremities
  • Sleep problems (insomnia);
  • Diarrhea or dehydration

Duration of Buprenorphine + Naloxone (Suboxone)

The half-life of Suboxone is 20-70 hours, depending on the route of administration and interaction with other drugs administered to the body.

Furthermore, buprenorphine has the capability to stay and attach to opiate receptors for over 24 hours, effectively incapacitating the receptors to make use of other stronger opiates less appealing [4,7].

How Long does Saboxone Stay in the Body?

This drug has a relatively short half-life. 

In most people, it will be undetectable in the urine after 2-4 days of complete abstinence. In saliva, it only stays for 1-3 days. Hair drug tests usually have a longer detection time of 90 days. Suboxone would last in the blood stream the longest. Some people put it at around 17 days, others at longer periods of time.

How long it stays inside the body depends on the dosage, usage, body fat, and metabolism. If you are taking in 8mg of Suboxone, possibly it will take 5 days for the drug to be excreted from your system. With 4mg of Suboxone, it will take 30-72 hours; while it usually takes 24-36 hours for 2mg of Suboxone to be taken out of your body [8,9].

How Long does Suboxone Block Opiates?

Blocking of opiates depends on duration and dosage of the drug administered. A dose of 4 mg once would only block opiates for 1 to 3 days; a dose of 16 mg or more will block opiates for 3 to 5 days.

How Long does Suboxone Stay in our System for Drug Tests?

It depends on the amount of Suboxone taken and the metabolism of a person. Suboxone could stay 3 to 5 days or maybe a week in your system [10].


Withdrawal Symptoms

Buprenorphine withdrawal symptoms are unpleasant but it depends on the brand of drugs used wherein it could be milder with Subutex than Suboxone. Common withdrawal symptoms include:

  • Muscle, joint, and bone pain
  • Inability to sleep (insomnia)
  • Irritability
  • Diarrhea
  • Restless leg syndrome (RLS)
  • Excessive sweating (diaphoresis)
  • Involuntary shaking (tremors)
  • Nausea and vomiting
  • Raise blood pressure (hypertension)
  • Raised heart rate (tachycardia)
Suboxone withdrawal lasts for 3 months or 90 days. The process usually differs from person to person. 

Withdrawal with Suboxone is not going to be easy because of the factors that may influence on how the body gets rid of it. It may vary depending on the dosage and duration of drug intake. The longer you took the drug, the higher the amount of Suboxone in your system, the more difficult it is for you to withdraw. 

During the withdrawal process, it is important to engage with healthy activities [11,12].

How Long does the Treatment Last?

Opioid addiction is a manifestation of brain changes resulting from chronic opioid use and misuse. The patient’s recovery is in great part a struggle to overcome the effects of these changes. Brain adaptations take time to develop and reverse. 

Patients should remain in treatment long enough to reverse the brain changes to the extent possible and learn coping mechanisms for what cannot be reversed. This is accomplished through deliberate reconditioning effort. 6-12 months is not an unusual treatment time frame, but longer period may be required, depending on the progress of the patient [13].

Getting off of Suboxone needs a serious medical help. It will not be easy, but indeed, it is possible. However, it is highly recommended to stay as productive and healthy as you can during withdrawal because it brings about faster recovery.

  2. How is treatment differ from drug abuse. Available from:
  3. The National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment. Available from:
  4. Buprenorphine. Available from:
  5. Naloxone. Available from:
  6. Side Effects. Available from:
  7. How long does Buprenorphine stay in your system. Available from:
  8. How long does buprenorphine last. Available from:
  9. Steadyhealth. Available from:
  10. Healthtap. Available from:
  11. The Ugly Truth about Withdrawal. Available from:
  12. Withdrawal Symptoms. Available from: -do-they-last/
  13. The National Alliance of Advocates for Buprenorphine Treatment Documents. NAABT brochures.
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