Anuria - Definition, Causes, Symptoms and Treatment

Anuria Definition

From the word itself, you can derive its definition. The prefix “a-“ or “an-“ means absence. Uria refers to urine. So by the context of the word, anuria or anuresis means no urination.

But in the clinical setting, this is actually not the case. Medically, anuria means having a urine output of less than 100 mL per day. The kidneys do not totally stop producing urine. If the kidneys stop functioning, the person dies.

The term anuria was coined in order to denote that the urine output is dangerously low. If untreated, it can be a cause of death.

Anuria is almost always associated with the term oliguria. Oliguria means having a urine output of less than 500 mL per day. It is an early sign of kidney problems. Anuria comes in late, when the disease progresses and if it is in its advanced state. Obviously, anuria is worse than oliguria.

Anuria Causes

Prerenal Causes

Prerenal causes of anuria refer to problems of the structures “before the kidneys,” i.e. the blood vessels that supply the kidneys.

The kidneys are very vascular organs, especially its medullary part. If the blood supply to the kidneys is low, it means other organs are in dire need of blood and oxygen supply, hence, the kidney which is an organ of elimination, receives less.

Decreased renal perfusion or mean systemic arterial pressure decreases renal output via autoregulatory mechanisms and neurohumoral pathways.

The following are the prerenal causes of anuria for adults and children [1, 2, 3]:

1. Hypovolemia
  • Hemorrhage
  • Diarrhea
  • Vomiting
  • Burns
  • Pulmonary edema
  • Diuretics
  • Intraoperative fluid loss
  • Fluid loss related to use of drains
2. Low systemic vascular resistance
  • Sepsis
  • Shock
  • Antihypertensive drugs
  • Side effects of drugs
3. Heart Failure
  • Decreased cardiac output
  • Arrhythmia
  • Myocardial infarction
  • Cardiomyopathy
  • Cardiac tamponade
4. Others
  • Increased intra-abdominal pressure
  • Direct compression of the renal vein
  • Compression of the inferior vena cava
  • Anaphylaxis
  • Pancreatitis
  • Diabetes mellitus
  • Diabetes insipidus
In neonates, additional prerenal causes are the following [3]:
  1. Respiratory distress syndrome
  2. Perinatal asphyxia
  3. Congenital heart disease
  4. Indomethacin
  5. NSAIDs or ACE inhibitors used by the mother

Renal Causes

Renal causes of anuria refer to the problems of the “kidney itself.” A very low urine output is due to diseases of the glomerulus and renal tubules.

In the presence of glomerular and tubular diseases, the renal parenchyma will not be able to effectively and efficiently filter the urine. As a result, there will be less urine output.

The following are the renal causes of anuria for all age groups [1, 2, 3]:
  1. Nephrotoxic drugs: aminoglycoside, amphotericin B, diuretics, NSAID, cephalosporin, penicillin, angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE) inhibitor, cisplatinum, cyclosporine, tacrolimus, radiological contrast
  2. Endogenous toxins: uric acid, haemoglobin, myoglobin
  3. Glomerulonephritis
  4. Autoimmune diseases
  5. Systemic diseases
  6. Vascular diseases: haemolytic uremic syndrome, renal artery or vein thrombosis, vasculitis
  7. Congenital kidney diseases
  8. Family history of renal diseases
  9. Muscle trauma
  10. Hematuria

Postrenal Causes

Postrenal causes of anuria refer to the problems of the structures “after the kidney,” i.e. obstruction of urine flow.

There is no problem with renal perfusion and there is no noted renal disease. The problem most likely lies on urinary obstruction. The urine cannot pass through structures as it should be so there will be less urine output.

The following are the postrenal causes of anuria [1, 2]:
  1. Lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS): frequency, weak stream, dribbling
  2. Benign prostatic hypertrophy
  3. Calculi
  4. Mass in the neck of the urinary bladder
  5. Retroperitoneal fibrosis
  6. Kinks in the catheter (if the patient uses one)

In children and neonates, the following are the postrenal causes of anuria [3]:
  1. Stenosis of urinary meatus
  2. Posterior urethral valves
  3. Bilateral ureteral obstruction
  4. Neurogenic bladder

Treatment for Anuria

Cardiopulmonary Resuscitation

Fluid resuscitation of 250-500 mL aliquots may be the key in order to increase urine output and stabilize heart rate and blood pressure. The goal is for the patient to have a urine output of at least 0.5 mL/kg/hr.

Central venous pressure is maintained at 8-12 mmHg via central venous catheter. Blood pressure is very accurately measured through an arterial line. If fluid challenge fails, inotropes come to the rescue.

Nephrotoxic drugs

If the patient is taking drugs that are toxic to the kidneys (as noted above), discontinue these medications. It is also important to release the obstruction, decrease intra-abdominal pressure, and treat underlying infection.


Picture 1 ECG shows hyperkalemia in its early state.
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Picture 2: ECG shows progressing hyperkalemia.
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Picture 3: ECG shows hyperkalemia in its late state.
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Hyperkalemia is a medical emergency wherein potassium level reaches >6.5 mmol/L and ECG shows peaked T waves and widened QRS complexes. It may also be accompanied by ventricular arrhythmias and asystole.

In the presence of hyperkalemia, BLS/ALS is initiated above all. Discontinue medications and infusions that contain potassium.

Administer 10 mL of calcium gluconate 10%; 50 mL of glucose 50%; and 10 units of rapid-acting insulin. 100 mmols of sodium bicarbonate 8.4% and inhaled beta-2 agonist are also given. These will shift the potassium into the cells. However, potassium still leaks out of the cells therefore these are not permanent treatment for hyperkalemia. Excess potassium need to be excreted from the body in order to eradicate its signs and symptoms.

For a less severe case of hyperkalemia, i.e., potassium levels of 5.5-6.5 mmol/L, potassium is restricted and resonium 15-30 g should be administered [1].

Treatment for Anuria in Children

Neonates and children are more prone to dehydration than adults so this is one of the things the health care providers should watch out for.

Dehydration in children is treated by 20 mL/kg fluid bolus of normal saline solution or lactated Ringer’s solution. In cases of fluid overload, fluid restriction and furosemide (diuretics) therapy is ordered. If the cause is postrenal (obstruction or stenosis), perform urinary catheterization [3].


  1. Jacques T et al, 5 Causes of Anuria: DETECT 2nd edition, 2009
  2. Glabowski N, Diagnosis in the Anuric/Oliguric Patient /N%20Grabowski%204%20May%202011%20diagnosis%20of%20renal%20failure.pdf
  3. Jain A & Mattoo TK, AAP Textbook of Pediatric Care, Anuria and Oliguria
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EBOLA VIRUS - Symptoms, Outbreak, Prevention (Vaccine) and Treatment

From time to time mankind has been terrorized by the emergence of fatal, rapidly spreading, incurable diseases. In the long list of scary outbreaks of SARS, Bird flu and Swine flu, Ebola is the new addition. Though Ebola fever has been known to exist for a long time, not much has been known about it, as the occasional outbreaks have been confined only to African countries. In this modern era of transport and communication, there are numerous opportunities for spread of such a disease from one part of the world to other if proper preventive measures are not employed. This article will make you aware of the facts about Ebola Virus disease and wipe away the myths.

What is Ebola Virus Disease [EVD]?

Ebola virus disease or Ebola hemorrhagic fever as previously called is a dangerously fatal communicable disease caused by a group of 5 Virus which belong to genus Ebola Virus. They are Bundibugyo Ebola virus, Zaire Ebola virus, Sudan Ebola virus, Reston Ebola virus and Tai forest virus based on their territory of distribution, of which the first three are associated with more severe outbreaks than the other two. [1, 3, 4]

What is Ebola virus?

Ebola virus is an enveloped virus. It contains a single strand of helical negative sense RNA as its genetic material which is attached with different protein molecules in its core called nucleocapsid. The virus is actually tubular in structure but appears in various forms like coiled and loops after various procedures used to visualize the virus. When the virus enters into the human body, it attacks the immune system of the body and lowers the protective cells and the cells necessary for blood clot formation. This lowers the ability of our body to form clots which leads to severe internal and external bleeding which causes the person to bleed to death. [1, 2, 3]

Picture 1: Microscopic view of Ebola virus
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Picture 2: Ultra structure of Ebola virus
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How is Ebola virus disease transmitted?

Ebola is primarily concentrated in the tropical rainforests of the African continent. Ebola virus disease gets transmitted from animals to humans initially which then involve human to human transmission. Fruit bats act as the intermediate host for this dangerous virus and humans, primates like monkeys and chimpanzees and pigs are the end hosts.

The virus gets transmitted from animal or one person to another through physical contact with bodily secretions, organs, inanimate objects with dried secretions from the infected animal or human being. It is believed that the initial outbreaks occurred when people handled dead infected chimpanzees and monkeys. [1, 3, 4]

Picture 3: Ebola Virus cycle

So, the possible ways of transmission of Ebola virus and high risk situations are

  • Coming in physical contact with the secretions and fluids like blood and saliva of an infected person/animal or someone who have died of this disease
  • Coming in physical contact with inanimate objects with dried secretions of infected person/animal like needles, intravenous lines, cotton swabs used for the infected person
  • People who handle burial ceremonies of the infected people who have died which poses high risk for exposure to the virus
  • Health care workers who have very high risk of exposure to the diagnosed and undiagnosed patients
  • Lab workers who handle samples for diagnosis and for research purpose[1,4,5]

It is to kept in mind that, this disease does not spread by air as droplet infection

Symptoms and Signs of Ebola Virus disease

Ebola virus disease is an acute viral illness. When someone is exposed to Ebola virus, the clinical features of the disease develop in 2-21 days. The initial symptoms include sudden fever associated with body pain, fatigue, and headache, sore throat which may be followed by vomiting blood, coughing up blood or bloody diarrhea. There may be fiery rash over the body. The condition of the patient deteriorates very rapidly causing damage to liver and kidney which aggravates the condition resulting in death due to uncontrollable bleeding. As the initial symptoms are non specific and are found in numerous other common diseases, high level of suspicion is necessary to diagnose it early based on the rapid severity of symptoms. [1, 4, 6,7]

Picture 4: Hemorrhagic rash which occurs over entire body
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How to diagnose Ebola Virus Disease?

Diagnosing Ebola virus disease is an essential step to break the spread and to treat the patient. Location of a person in a geographic area of Ebola, History of recent trip to an Ebola affected area, Occupation related to high risk of exposure along with rapidly deteriorating health condition with above said symptoms must elicit suspicion. Other diseases associated with similar clinical features like malaria, cholera, typhoid and other hemorrhagic fevers must be ruled out first, as they are more prevalent. [1, 4, 6]
  • Ebola virus disease can be confirmed by the following methods
  • Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay
  • Reverse Transcriptase Polymerase Chain Reaction
  • Antigen Detection Tests
  • Isolation of the virus by cell culture
  • Identifying the virus through electron microscopy

As, handling the samples is highly dangerous, all the diagnostic tests should be done in a maximum containment facility with proper protection gears.

Picture 5: Containment facility

Prevention and Treatment of Ebola Virus Disease

Till date, there are no preventive vaccines or specific drugs available for the treatment and cure of Ebola virus disease, but development of drugs are being undertaken by various pharmaceutical companies like Mapp Biopharmaceutical Inc which has developed an experimental drug called ZMapp which is a combination of three different monoclonal antibodies which bind to the Ebola virus and act. The NIH’s National Institute of Allergy and Infectious diseases are backing up the development of vaccines for Ebola. But all these efforts are in the initial stage and no drug or vaccine have been tested for its effectiveness against the disease in humans. [1, 4, 7, 8]

The treatment for Ebola virus disease includes
  • Intensive supportive measures
  • Maintenance of fluid and electrolytes
  • Maintenance of oxygen level and respiration
  • Medications as per the need of the patient

Even with intensive medical support the fatality of this disease is 90%

So prevention is the only possible way to save ourselves from this disease.

  • As Ebola virus is susceptible to various disinfectants like sodium hypochlorite, methyl alcohol etc, animal farms in the reservoir areas must be cleaned properly with appropriate disinfectants

Picture 6: Spraying of disinfectant in hospital waiting area
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  • If there arises a suspicion that, the animals might have become sick with Ebola virus, veterinary doctor and public health person must be notified immediately
  • The infected animal must be quarantined and culling should be done. The carcass of the dead animal must be buried deep or incinerated and proper disinfection should be carried out.
  • Movement of the animals must be restricted to prevent an outbreak.
  • People who handle infected animals and carcass should wear a full protection gear including goggles and containment suits and animal handling should be reduced or avoided if possible

Picture 7: complete protection gear for high risk people
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  • Reduce the physical contact with patients with Ebola virus disease
  • Health personals and Lab workers must handle the samples and objects with utmost care
  • Hand washing and Protection gear should never be forgotten
  • Prompt burial of the dead body should be carried out

Picture 8: Handling of dead victims
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  • To prevent the spread from an epidemic to an unaffected place, all means of immigration facilities like airports and ports must be under strict surveillance and the staffs should be trained to identify people who show symptoms of Ebola Virus Disease

Public awareness is the key to break the spreading of such a dreaded disease

Ebola outbreaks

Ebola fever was first identified in 1976 in an African village called Yambuku on the banks of River Ebola from where this deadly disease gets its name. The first outbreak happened simultaneously in 2 different African countries and usually the Ebola outbreaks are associated with more number of deaths. Sometimes the disease occurs sporadically. The recent outbreak in 2014 has happened in Liberia, Sierra Leone and Guinea.

The death toll has crossed over 1000 according to the WHO reports. Efficient steps have been taken by the CDC and other health organization to stop the spread of this outbreak. Treating the victims, contact tracing and quarantine are the effective means by which previous outbreaks have been stalled.

Though the disease is rare and have very less chance of getting introduced into non African countries, it is necessary for everyone to be aware about the basic facts and myths of this disease to play their part well in the protection of their own health and that of the community as well. [1, 4]


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Seborrheic Dermatitis - Scalp Pictures, Causes and Treatment

What is Seborrheic Dermatitis?

Seborrheic dermatitis is a type of skin inflammatory disease that causes flaky, scaly, itchy, and reddish skin. This condition typically affects skin areas which are rich in sebaceous or oil glands, such as the face, scalp, and torso [1]. Additionally, this skin condition is chronic and has a tendency to relapse [2].


Seborrheic Dermatitis Causes

The exact cause of seborrheic dermatitis is still not determined. However, there have been some factors which are associated to the occurrence of the disease. It includes:

Fungal (Yeast) Cause 

  • 1. Presence of yeast species on the skin
Yeast species called Malassezia, is linked to the development of seborrheic dermatitis. This group of yeast secretes toxic substances which causes skin irritation and inflammation. Normally, the presence of this yeast is not harmful to the body. However, most patients with this condition are known to have less resistance to yeast.

  • 2. Fungal growth in lipid-abundant areas
The fungi involved in seborrheic dermatitis grow in an environment which is rich in lipid. This is why the common areas involved in this condition are the scalp, eyebrows, nasolabial folds, ears, and chest. [1, 2]


Immune System- Related Cause

Inflammatory/Immune reaction
  • Increase in immunoglobulin A (IgA)
  • Elevated NK1 and CD16+ cell counts
  • T-cell function depression


Neuropsychiatric Cause

1. Neurologic disorders
  • Stroke
  • Essential tremors
  • Trigeminal nerve dyskinesia
  • Tardive dyskinesia
  • Spinal injuries

2. Psychiatric disorders
  • Alzheimer’s disease
  • Parkinson’s disease
  • Schizophrenia
  • Mood disorders


Nutritional Cause

1. Vitamin deficiencies in:
  • Vitamin B6 (Pyridoxine)
  • Biotin
  • Vitamin B2 (Riboflavin)

2. Vitamin excess
  • Excessive vitamin A 

Hormonal Cause

  • Increased androgen in puberty
  • Presence of maternal androgens in infants

Other factors

  • Season change
  • Illness and reduced general health
  • Stress: Psychological stress, sleep deprivation, fatigue [1, 2, 3]


Seborrheic Dermatitis Symptoms

The usual body areas which are affected by seborrheic dermatitis are those which produce the most amount of sebum (oil). So, this condition involves skin areas such as the face (eyebrow area, nose, and forehead) and the scalp. Other possible affected areas include armpits, chest, underneath the breasts, ears, and groins.


  • Patches of flaky skin: May appear grayish, yellowish, or whitish in color
  • Dandruff or scaling
  • Itchiness and soreness
  • Red greasy skin


  • Red, scaly patches
  • Greasy skin
  • Yellow-brown colored crusts may appear over the patches.
  • Itchy and slightly raised rash
  • Inflammation of areas such as eyelids or outer ear canal


  • Reddish or yellowish scaly pimples which are located on the eyebrows, nose, hairline, ears, upper back, and chest
  • Severe Seborrheic Dermatitis is unusual.
  • People who develop severe cases of this condition are those with compromised immune system. [1, 4, 5]


Seborrheic Dermatitis Pictures

Picture 1: Areas commonly affected by Seborrheic Dermatitis

Picture 2: Seborrheic Dermatitis on Forehead

Picture 3: Seborrheic Dermatitis on sides of the nose

Picture 4: Seborrheic Dermatitis on scalp

Picture 5: Seborrheic Dermatitis on the outer ear canal

Picture 6: Seborrheic Dermatitis on the chest and underarms

Picture 7: Form of Seborrheic Dermatitis in Infants (Cradle Cap)

Picture 8: Scaly skin caused by Seborrheic Dermatitis


Seborrheic Dermatitis Natural Treatment


Natural Substances

Some natural substances may be beneficial in providing relief from seborrheic dermatitis. These include:
  • Avocado Extracts
  • Aloe Vera
  • Oregano oil
  • Tea tree oil
  • Fish oil supplements
  • Honey


Hygiene and Clothing

  • Refrain from using harsh detergents and soaps.
  • Use anti-dandruff shampoo following the recommended schedule.
  • For babies, use mild shampoo and soft-bristled brush to loosen scales.
  • Shave mustache or beard to prevent the condition for worsening.
  • Low buzz haircut
  • Avoid scratching to prevent irritation.
  • Wear clothes which are smooth and cotton. This is important to promote ventilation of the skin and prevent irritation.



  • Antifungal diet: Made up of increased vegetable intake and decreased sugar consumption. [1,5]


Seborrheic Dermatitis Treatment

Antifungal agents (Medical treatment)

These work by decreasing the numbers of Malassezia yeast that are present on the affected body areas. Some of the most commonly prescribed antifungals are:

1. Ketoconazole
  • Comes in foams, gels, creams, and shampoos
  • Prescription Ketoconazole (2% strength), Over-the-counter Ketoconazole (1% strength)

2. Terbinafine (Lamisil)
  • Usually recommended in the form of tablets
  • Indicated to provide treatment of severe cases
  • This is prescribed with caution due to the serious side effects that it may cause, such as liver problems and allergic reactions.

3. Ciclopirox
  • A common content of skin products and shampoos
  • Side effects in some people include itching, irritation, and burning



These are given to lessen discomfort, itching, and inflammation. Usually, they are advised to be taken in a short period of time to prevent serious side effects such as excessive hair growth, skin damage, infection, hormone suppression, and blood sugar elevation.

1. Hydrocortisone
  • Applied on areas such as scalp
  • Usual recommended form is 1% strength cream. Though it also comes in higher strength creams.

2. Betamethasone
  • Prescribed as lotion or cream
  • Used on scalp and other body parts
  • Use is limited to few weeks at a time

3. Desonide
  • Also, it is prescribed as ointment or gel for topical application.


  • Cetirizine
  • Loratidine
  • Diphenhydramine
  • Chlorphreniramine

Calcineurin Inhibitors

  • This medication acts by inhibiting the immune system activities.
  • Known to be effective corticosteroid and antifungal lotion and cream.
  • Used only if all other treatment has not been effective.
  • Some examples include: Pimecrolimus (Elidel) and Tacrolimus (Protopic)


Medicated Shampoo

A medicated shampoo is prescribed for treatment of Seborrheic Dermatitis. This kind of shampoo can be utilized twice a week. For those with dandruff, the shampoo should be rubbed on the hair thoroughly at least 2-3 times per week. When using it, let it stay for about 5 minutes. Then, rinse it thoroughly to remove dandruff. The active ingredients present in this shampoo include:
  • Salicylic acid
  • Selenium sulphide
  • Zinc pyrithione
  • Coal tar



  • A procedure called Photodynamic Therapy is used to lessen the Malassezia fungus growth and skin inflammation.
  • Phototherapy recommended by dermatologists utilizes UV-A and UV-B laser as well as blue and red LED lights. [1, 5, 6, 7]

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Bad Teeth

Bad Teeth

Bad teeth is one of the common problems that people in all walks of life have. It is a problem that could be with you for a lifetime if you do not prevent it from happening or getting worse.

Teeth are important. They are our window to the outside world. It is not only important in aesthetic purposes. It is a very important part of our health and wellness since they grind the foods that keep us alive. In this article, you will learn how to care of your teeth by keeping it from getting bad.

Causes of Bad Teeth

Genetics and Heredity

  • Your DNA dictates the structure of your tooth enamel. Soft tooth enamel makes it easy for the microorganisms to do their damage and that leads to cavities.
  • It appears genes have something to do with sweet tooth. The more tenacious your sweet preference is, the more chances of you having a tooth decay.
  • Genetics also has to do with the metabolism of necessary minerals such as calcium, potassium, magnesium, and fluoride to keep the teeth healthy. If your body cannot metabolize these minerals very well, there will be consequences on your teeth.
  • Ability to taste different kinds of food and perception of bad taste is also hereditary [1].

Bad Foods = Bad Teeth

  • Sugary foods like candies, chocolates, honey, and caramel provide a sweet delight but these could hurt your teeth because they stick to their surfaces and it takes longer for them to dissolve compared to other foods. The amount of sugar ingested is not the dental issue here; it’s how often you ingest them.
  • Starchy foods like bread, pizza, pasta, chips, and burgers are made up of polysaccharides, meaning they are converted by salivary amylase into glucose or sugar when they are processed by the mouth. Additionally, they easily get in between teeth and they are quite hard to remove if you do not brush or floss after you eat. Accumulation of sugar in teeth causes decalcification of the enamel.
  • Acidic foods and drinks like lemon, orange, tomatoes, and grapefruit contain citric acid that softens the structure of the teeth and causes erosion. After taking in acidic foods, and drinks, the mouth should be rinsed thoroughly.
  • While chewable vitamins, vitamin waters, and health drinks provide systemic benefits, these could actually be harmful to the teeth because these contain concentrated acids that cling to the surface.
  • Soft drinks and sports drinks like Gatorade contain high levels of sugar and acid. Even an iced tea is bad. Drinking a bottle all at once is better than drinking it little by little, so that the exposure of the drinks to the teeth will at least be lesser.
  • Saliva washes away the food particles in our mouth and keeps it clean. Alcohol is an acid and it suppresses saliva production and secretion. You have a dry mouth if you drink alcohol. So there will be less protective barrier.
  • Dried fruits are wrapped in a nonsoluble cellulose fiber pack. This makes the fruits adhere with each other, trapping their sugar around the surface of the teeth, making them harder to remove [2].

Bad Teeth and Health Disease

Researchers say that bad oral health can be a factor in developing a heart disease. Oral symptoms are noticed in 90% of patients with systemic disease, including heart disease.

The heart is the main organ in the cardiovascular system. This system is connected in all the parts of our body, since the tissues need blood in order to survive. The blood circulates in our mouth.

Gums and teeth are correlated with the heart because when harmful microorganisms lodged in different areas of our oral cavity find their way into the circulation, the heart receives the blood and may cause infection since that microorganism is not supposed to be there [3].

Treatment for Bad Teeth

  • Brush your teeth with fluoridated toothpaste at least twice a day.
  • Use a dental floss to get rid of the food remnants that get in the gaps of your teeth.
  • Gargle with mouthwash to prevent halitosis or bad breath.
  • Eat acidic foods with meals so that the bad effects could at least be diminished.
  • Brushing with baking soda offers alkaline environment in your mouth, contradicting the effects of acid.
  • Xylitol decreases the bacteria in your mouth, thereby preventing cavities.
  • Recaldent helps mineralization of your tooth, thereby preventing decay [4].

Start Preventing Bad Teeth during Childhood

  • Milk teeth have to be brushed two minutes two times a day once it erupts. This develops good dental habits that he will carry for the rest of his life.
  • Some children’s toothpastes do not contain enough fluoride to protect the teeth from dental cavities and decay. Parents should choose toothpastes that contain at least 1000 ppm (parts per million) of fluoride if their child is less than 3 years old. Children 3-6 years old should have a toothpaste with 1350-1500 ppm of fluoride
  • Excessive rinsing of the mouth after brushing diminishes the protective action of fluoride.
  • The child should be able to brush his teeth on his own when he reaches 7 years old.
  • Fluoride varnish involves painting of fluoride onto the surface of the teeth every 6 months until adulthood. This ensures strong tooth enamel.
  • Fissure sealants are recommended when the child reaches 6-7 years old. This is the time when the permanent chewing teeth begin to erupt. Fissure sealants coat the teeth in order to prevent tooth decay. The protective barrier lasts for 5-10 years [5].

Good Foods  =  Good Teeth

  • Water is the best treat for your teeth.
  • Dairy products like milk, cheese, and curd provide minerals like calcium to keep your teeth strong.
  • High fiber fruits and vegetables like cucumber, watermelon, pear, and apple have juice that can clean your mouth.
  • Nuts like cashews, almonds, peanuts, and walnuts contain vitamins and minerals such as calcium, potassium, iron, and zinc that are necessary for healthy teeth.
  • Green tea, coffee, and cocoa contain polyphenol that prevents dental problems [2].

British Joke on Bad Teeth

Picture : The Big Book of British Smiles
Image Source:

British tea and dining etiquette are two of the things that bring great reputation to British people. But they are also renowned to have bad teeth.

British people with bad teeth are featured in “The Big Book of British Smiles” in the television show “The Simpsons.” They were used to scare kids if they do not maintain a healthy oral hygiene [1].

  1. Frysh P, Bad teeth? Blame your genes accessed on
  2. Sen DS, Foods that are Bad for your Health accessed on
  3. Smith MW, Healthy Teeth Healthy Heart accessed on
  4. Springen K, 5 Things You Didn’t Know About Your Teeth accessed on
  5. Children’s Teeth accessed on
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